Unlike anthrax it’s not really naturally occurring.  Ricin is a naturally occurring protein made from the natural waste production of castor seed oil. Relatively easy to create.


It’s a powder derived from the spent shells of the Castor Oil plant.


It can be deadly, but modern medicine can treat the symptoms in most cases.

There is no ricin in castor seed oil.   Also no antidote that has been tested on humans.


Symptoms of ricin poisoning are related to the production or blocked production of proteins on a cellular basis.  As a result it takes a while for symptoms to present.  From an hour to a day depending on the method of exposure.

Most dangerous inhaled or injected.  Less dangerous if ingested… digestive tract does a pretty good job of isolating ricin.


32 known species, all native to the Western Hemisphere.

There are typically about 7,000 bites reported annually.  About 5 deaths on average.

Rattlesnakes release venom by choice not reflexively.  A bite may not include any venom.  Venom is generally reserved for attacks, not defense.

Rattlesnakes are viviparous – live births.


Considered an optical and meteorological phenomenon.  Rainbows require relatively low angle of light to water --- 42 degrees.  More common in mornings and afternoons than midday. 

Rainbows are always directly opposite the sun from the viewers perspective.

Everyone sees their own unique rainbow.  Unless you are standing in the EXACT same space.

You cannot actually get closer to a rainbow. 

Color spectrum appears due to refraction of light.  Background lighting is brighter INSIDE a rainbow than above it.

Double rainbows are opposites.  Infrared at the top to Ultra violet at the bottom of the first rainbow, Red at the bottom to Violet at the top on the second higher rainbow.

Skydivers can see twin rainbows that appear to be nearly circular.

In spite of very specific shouted information at my house… Rainbow Dash is a girl My Little Pony.

 Rainbow flag dates back to a long way before the gay pride flags. Incans had flags that had 7 striped rainbows with serpents at either end.   In 1885, Buddhist groups began adopting a  5 color flag with both vertical and horizontal stripes.  Noahidism, a group that follows the seven laws of Noah use a flag that features a rainbow.  In 1921, the International Co-operative Alliance adopted a 7 color rainbow flag.

The LGBT flag dates back only to 1978 in San Francisco.  It originally had 8 colors but pink and turquoise were dropped to make them easier to produce.



Ready for the Questions?

  1.  What are the typical 7 colors described as the elements of the visible spectrum --- according to Roy G Biv? 


Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet


  1. Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer was originally published as a promotional give-away by Montgomery Ward in what year that also saw the end of the Second Polish Republic (and the release of Gone with the Wind and The Wizard of OZ)? 




  1. In 1939, Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany on September 1st and Russia on September 17th.  Russia is the largest country in the world.  How many time zones stretch across Russia, by far the most of any country?  




  1. Russia is the largest producer and controller of all but which of these natural resources? Oil, Forestland, Fresh water (25% of the world’s supply – Canada is second 7%) , coal, Natural Gas   


Coal --- 5th   China, US, India Australia


  1. From Russia With Love was the second Bond film to star what actor? 


Sean Connery


  1. From Russia with Love was released in 1963, Ten years after the start of what franchised children’s show that began in Baltimore and featured a “Magic Mirror” that let the hostess see the audience?  “I see Tommy and Molly and Barbara and Billy and…”


Romper Room.


  1. There were three different franchises of Romper Room in what state that was home to the first for pay thrill rides in the US during the 1850s?  The gravity railroad was originally built for delivering coal in the town of Mauch Chunk? 


Pennsylvania – Today Mauch Chunk is known as Jim Thorpe, PA.

  1. Jim Thorpe was from Oklahoma, from the Choctaw words for “red people”.  What Caribbean nation’s Anglicized name is from Arawakan words for “Land of Wood and Water”?  It is the third most populous English speaking nation in North America … and it is home to Reggae and Rastafarianism.   




  1. Rastafarians belief that Haile Selassie I Ethiopian Emperor was the Messiah. Their religion dates back to the 1930s.  Which denomination has the most followers in Jamaica according to the 2001 census?  Roman Catholics (2%), Seventh Day Adventists, Rastafarians (1%), Jehovah’s Witnesses (2%)? 


Seventh Day Adventists 11% of the population.  The largest group is a Protestant Denomination known in Jamaica as Church of God almost a quarter of the population.


10.Which food products company was founded by an early follower of the Seventh Day Adventists?   Kellogg’s, Cadbury, Nabisco, Hershey’s  


Kellogg’s – like Seventh day Adventists – founded in Battle Creek, MI.


11.Kellogg Creek on Mt Diablo in California is thought to be home to what colorful fish species, related to salmon? 


Rainbow Trout